Domains: Basic Protection | Market Plurality | Political Independence | Social Inclusiveness
Transparency in media ownership This indicator aims to assess the existence and effective implementation of transparency and disclosure provisions with regard to media ownership and/or control.
Concentration in media ownership This indicator aims to assess the existence and effective implementation of regulatory safeguards (sector-specific and competition law) against a high horizontal concentration of ownership and/or control in the different media. It assesses also the concentration of ownership within the media sector.
Concentration of cross-media ownership This indicator aims to assess the existence and effective implementation of regulatory safeguards (sector-specific and/or competition law) against a high degree of cross-ownership between relevant media (audio-visual, press, radio, internet) and cross-ownership concentration in the media market.
Market Plurality indicators are dealing mostly with media ownership, an economic component that is widely considered essential in the assessment of a level of media pluralism in any given context. The structure of media ownership matters, first of all to assess the influence being exercised by a specific media owner within a single media outlet, both in terms of internal pluralism and of fairness towards the readers and audience. Moreover, the level of concentration of media ownership is important to assess the measure of external pluralism within a given media market. The MPM considers threats to media pluralism coming from the level of transparency and of from the level of concentration of media ownership. The concentration is measured within the same media market (e.g. audio-visual) and across different media markets (cross-media concentration).
Specifically, in the MPM2015 there are three indicators on Market Plurality:
- Transparency of media ownership
- Concentration of media ownership
- Concentration of cross-media ownership